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Hand-foot-mouth disease health education promotion points 手足口病健康教育宣传要点

时间:2012-05-07     作者:中检安泰   阅读


1. Pathogens: Hand, Foot and mouth disease is an infectious disease caused by enterovirus. The main pathogens are Enterovirus 71 and Coxsackie virus A16.

 

2. Epidemiological characteristics: April-June is the peak season for hand-foot-mouth disease, and small peaks in autumn and winter will appear in some areas. The incidence of the disease is mainly children aged 5 and below. The same child may have multiple attacks due to different types of enteroviruses.

 

3. Clinical characteristics: Hand-foot-mouth disease is mostly self-limiting and can be self-healed after 7-10 days without treatment. Patients usually develop fever, loss of appetite, mental retardation, and sore throat. After 1-2 days, oral ulcers develop, and red rashes appear on the palms, soles, and buttocks. Some patients may only have a rash without fever. A small number of patients will develop severe cases and very few may die.

 

4. Mode of transmission: Hand, foot and mouth disease mainly spreads through contact with patients' mouth and nose secretions, herpes fluid, feces, and contact with contaminated toys, baby bottles, tableware and other items.

5. Case management: There are no specific antiviral drugs. The patient needs to add enough water and ensure adequate rest. Symptomatic treatment such as fever and analgesia can be performed. Children should not go to school or participate in gatherings before the rash blisters dry to prevent transmission of the disease. If the pathogen is enterovirus 71, the child should be isolated from home for a longer period of time until the rash blisters dry. 2 weeks after drying, parents and doctors should also pay close attention to the condition of the child. If there are any of the following conditions, you should seek medical attention and strengthen treatment as soon as possible: persistent high fever, repeated vomiting, drowsiness, fright or irritability, hand-foot jitter, trunk ataxia, sudden weakness, and respiration, difficulties or shortness of breath.

 

6. Prevention: There is currently no vaccine prevention. Good personal and environmental hygiene are the most important preventive measures, as follows: (1) Wash your hands before eating, after going to the toilet, handling vomit, or changing diapers; (2) Cover your mouth and nose with a paper towel if you sneeze or cough (if you do not have paper towels) (Elbow joints may be used) and throw paper towels in the trash can; (3) Do not share personal items such as towels, tablespoons, etc.; (4) Need to clean and disinfect the toys or other objects that the patient's mouth and nose secretions have contaminated, and often touched items , furniture and toilets can be disinfected with high temperature (>56°C), bleaching powder or ultraviolet radiation; (5) avoid close contact with hand, foot and mouth disease patients.


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